The Historical and Ethnological Society of Greece was founded in 1882, at a time of economic and social advancement of the Greek state, about fifty years after its independence.
Founding members of the Society were eminent scholars and scientists of the time, such as scholar and journalist Timoleon Filimon, folklorist Nikolaos Politis, historian Spyridon Lambros, writer Dimitrios Kambouroglou, journalist Babis Anninos, historian and geographer Antonios Miliarakis, poet Georgios Drossinis and others.
The Society aimed at collecting, preserving and promoting the relics and testimonies that illuminate the history of Modern Greece. To accomplish this goal, the Society immediately set up the Museum, Archive and Library. Since 1883, it published the Bulletin of the Historical and Ethnological Society of Greece, containing scientific articles on history and ethnography.
Today, the activity of the Society is mainly canalised through the work of the National Historical Museum and its annex on Hydra island.